A fish pond is a relatively simple way to add beautiful living art to any yard, garden or landscape. But it is important to consider the climate you live in, especially the winter months. To keep your fish safe and your pond functioning all year round it is important to plan ahead and figure out how specifics like size and depth come into play.
What Is The Minimum Depth A Pond Must Be In Winter?
Just like in nature, the fish can survive under water throughout winter. This is because the water is deep enough to allow the top to freeze over, but allow free flowing water below that for the fish to survive in. This is why depth is so crucial to your fish pond and why you need to plan ahead to your fish will not freeze to death during the winter.
A fish pond in a backyard or small garden will most likely be smaller in size than those with greater open land to utilize. But regardless of the width of the pond, the fish should have a minimum depth of 30 to 48 inches to swim in to guarantee they will be able to survive the cold winter months. This is applicable for any pond under ten feet.
Koi ponds need to be deeper than the simple backyard pond because the fish need a more regular, steady water temperature and enough room to avoid lurking birds. This requires a minimum depth of three feet, or 36 inches, but you should increase this to 48 to 60 inches if you have a larger population of koi fish in your pond.
Cold Water Ponds:
A larger sized pond needs a larger depth to give the fish adequate space to move and thrive. This is because larger ponds typically have larger populations and support a larger variety of aquatic life. If your pond is at least half an acre wide you will need a significantly larger depth to compensate. You also need to know whether or not the pond in spring fed because this also plays a role in calculating the depth of your pool. If the pond is spring fed it will require a depth of eight to ten feet. Non-spring fed ponds will need at least 16 feet of depth to allow your fish to survive.
Warm Water Ponds:
Warm water ponds are fed by surface run off so they must be treated similar to spring fed ponds and need at least eight to ten feet of depth to accommodate the pond’s inhabitants throughout the years.
The proper depth for your pond is not the only factor that affects if your fish survives the winter. If you want to keep your fish alive you will need to keep a portion of the pond ice free. Without an opening, the toxic gasses build up under the ice with nowhere to go and the fresh oxygen outside unable to get to the fish. While this doesn’t need to be a large hole, it does need to be at least six inches by six inches.